Thinking Metapractice

Incorporate the perspective of metathinking into your reflective practice for better pedagogical development

Take the Thinking Test below to see how you balance the 4Cs of P4C in your own thinking and teaching  …

Caring thinking : Critical thinking : Creative thinking : Collaborative thinking

The Test and Guide will enable you to learn about …

What  is the range of your thinking skills in relation to the 4Cs as an adult thinker?

What improvements you would prioritise in your caring, critical, creative and collaborative thinking?

How do the 4Cs enhance your academic writing in higher education?

How can you use teaching resources to better teach thinking to your pupils/students?

How to develop your class as a community of inquiry?

How could you include all four kinds of thinking in one framework?

P4T Metatheory: reconciling and balancing competing values in the field of practice

Take the Thinking Test

A quick guide to the typology, online test, interpreting your results and developing practice

Thinking Metapractice Dr Tim Saunders P4T : Philosophy for Teachers : p4t.org.uk. Aims 1. Know yourself better in terms of 4 modes of thinking: caring, critical, creative and collaborative – take a test as a quick way in 2. Personalise theory better – self-author your own approach to Thinking in a way that can be articulated for academic and professional purposes 3. Develop better practice – how you can develop your practice by teaching pupils/students how to Think 4. Teach thoughtfully for a better world! Metatheory : P4T Map 4Ps of Personal, Pedagogical, Professional and Planetary Development. Metatheory : P4T Map The focal practice of Thinking as part of pedagogical development. Matthew Lipman Lipman, M. (2003) Thinking in Education. 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Source of the P4T Thinking Typology. 4Cs of Thinking Percentage of your thinking A Caring B Critical C Creative D Collaborative About the P4T Thinking Test Thinking 1 Know Yourself 5 Minutes Task: This self-assessment test and guide to metathinking will focus on a) appreciating the range of thinking you do already at a personal level b) planning how to teach a better range of thinking with others for pedagogical purposes Firstly, as an adult thinker reflect upon how balanced your thinking is. What percentage of your thinking could be described as caring? What percentage of your thinking could be described as critical? What percentage of your thinking could be described as creative? What percentage of your thinking could be described as collaborative? Do you think this is the right balance for you?. 4Cs of Thinking Examples A Caring B Critical C Creative D Collaborative Examples of Each Kind of Thinking in Everyday Life Thinking 1 Know Yourself 5 Minutes Task: Give a recent example of each kind of thinking you do in everyday life before we explore them in more detail. Caring Thinking Appreciative, Normative, Affective, Empathic. A.1 Appreciative Example Personal Priority Prizing Valuing Celebrating Cherishing Admiring Respecting Preserving Praising Thinking about Caring Thinking: the Appreciative aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of caring thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your caring thinking.  A.2 Normative Example Personal Priority Requiring Obliging Compelling Appropriate Enforcing Demanding Expecting Thinking about Caring Thinking: the Normative aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of caring thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your caring thinking.  A.3 Affective Example Personal Priority Liking Loving Fostering Honoring Reconciling Friendly Encouraging Thinking about Caring Thinking: the Affective aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of caring thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your caring thinking. A.4 Empathic Example Personal Priority Considerate Compassionate Curatorial Nurturing Sympathetic Solicitous Mindful Serious Thinking about Caring Thinking: the Empathic aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of caring thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your caring thinking.  Review your Thinking about Caring Thinking Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: How do you feel about the range of caring thinking you do? Do you have a balanced spread across the range of Appreciative, Normative, Affective and Empathic aspects? If not do you have good reasons for giving more emphasis to certain aspects than others? How would you summarise your strengths in caring thinking? How would you summarise any areas for personal development? Critical Thinking Self-correction, Sensitivity to Context, Reliance on Criteria, Judgement . Thinking about Critical Thinking: Self-Correction Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of critical thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your critical thinking. B.1 Self-Correction Example Personal Priority Pointing out errors in other’s thinking Acknowledging errors in own thinking Disentangling ambiguous expressions Clarifying vague expressions Demanding reasons or criteria if not provided Identifying inconsistencies in discussions Pointing out fallacies in reasoning Questioning whether inquiry procedures have been correctly applied Thinking about Critical Thinking: Sensitivity to Context Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of critical thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise which you want to do more of to improve your critical thinking. B.2 Sensitivity to Context Example Personal Priority Differentiating nuances of meaning stemming from cultural or worldview differences Differentiating nuances of meaning stemming from personal perspectives or points of view Recognising differences due to different languages, disciplines, frames of reference Contending to establish authenticity & integrity of interpretations Contesting accuracy of translations Pointing out how meanings can be modified by contextual circumstances Noticing changes in meaning due to alterations of emphasis or shifts in intention Noticing differences between a present situation & seemingly similar past situations. Thinking about Critical Thinking: Reliance on Criteria Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of critical thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise which you want to do more of to improve your critical thinking. B.3 Reliance on Criteria Example Personal Priority Invoking shared values: ideals, purposes, goals, aims and objectives Invoking conventions: norms, regularities, uniformities, precedents and traditions Invoking common bases of comparison: shared respects, properties, characteristics Invoking requirements: precepts, specifications, stipulations, limitations Invoking perspectives: areas of concern, frames of reference, points of view Invoking principles, rules, laws, regulations, directions Invoking standards (degrees of satisfaction) and definitions (agreed meanings) Invoking facts (warranted assertions) and tests. Thinking about Critical Thinking: Judgement Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of critical thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise which you want to do more of to improve your critical thinking. B.4 Judgement Example Personal Priority Seeking settlements of deliberations Seeking verdicts of trials or inquests Seeking decisions Seeking determinations (conclusive findings of investigative proceedings) Seeking solutions to actual or theoretical problems Seeking clarifications or categorizations Evaluations and assessments. Review your Thinking about Critical Thinking Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10-20 Minutes Task: How do you feel about the range of critical thinking you do? Do you have a balanced spread across Self-correction, Sensitivity to Context, Reliance on Criteria and Judgement? If not do you have good reasons for giving more emphasis to certain aspects of critical thinking than others? How would you summarise your strengths in critical thinking? How would you summarise any areas for personal development? If you are engaged in academic or professional work how do you balance Caring thinking with the dominance of critical thinking in the Academy and/or the Profession? Creative Thinking Imaginative, Holistic, Inventive and Generative. C.1 Imaginative Example Personal Priority Defiant Bright Expressive Passionate Visionary Fanciful Articulate Thinking about Creative Thinking: the Imaginative aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of creative thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your creative thinking. C.2 Holistic Example Personal Priority Self-transcendent -striving to go beyond the previous level you reached Unified Concordant Integrated Coherent Orderly Organic Holistic Thinking about Creative Thinking: the Holistic aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of creative thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your creative thinking. C.3 Inventive Example Personal Priority Experimental Surprising Original Fresh Inquisitive New Independent – ‘thinking for yourself’ Undogmatic Thinking about Creative Thinking: the Inventive aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of creative thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your creative thinking. C.4 Generative Example Personal Priority Maieutic – like midwives bringing out the best thinking of others as offspring to nurture Productive Fruitful Fertile (ready for sowing and growing thoughts) Controversial (generating alternative possibilities not considered by the status quo)) Stimulating (stimulating creative thinking in others) Regenerative (process of coming back, growing anew, rebirth) Thinking about Creative Thinking: the Generative aspect Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of creative thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your creative thinking. Review your Thinking about Creative Thinking Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10-20 Minutes Task: How do you feel about the range of creative thinking you do? Do you have a balanced spread across the Imaginative, Holistic, Inventive and Generative aspects of creative thinking? If not do you have good reasons for giving more emphasis to certain aspects of creative thinking than others? How would you summarise your strengths in creative thinking? How would you summarise any areas for personal development? If you are engaged in academic or professional work how do you balance Creative thinking with the dominance of critical thinking in the Academy and/or the Profession? Collaborative Thinking Enactive, Coactive and Proactive dimensions of Community of Inquiry.  D.1 Enactive (core inquiry process) Example Personal Priority Reading (reflecting on & responding to a shared stimulus) Questioning the reading Discussion of reading Thinking for oneself Facilitating the thinking of others Impartiality Reasonableness Challenging as a procedure Thinking about Collaborative Thinking: the Enactive aspect of Community of Inquiry Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of collaborative thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your collaborative thinking.  D.2 Coactive (beneficial inquiry affects) Example Personal Priority Quest for meaning Progress in caring, critical and creative thinking Shared cognition Inclusion Participation Face-to-face relationship Feelings of solidarity Deliberation Thinking about Collaborative Thinking: the Coactive aspect of Community of Inquiry Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of collaborative thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your collaborative thinking. D.3 Proactive (outcomes beyond the inquiry) Example Personal Priority Organising Committing Managing Executing Building Contributing Performing Saving Thinking about Collaborative Thinking: the Proactive aspect of Community of Inquiry Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10 Minutes Task: Appreciate the variety of collaborative thinking you do and give practical examples for each. Prioritise any that you want to do more of to improve your collaborative thinking. Review your Thinking about Collaborative Thinking Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 10-20 Minutes Task: How do you feel about the range of collaborative thinking you do? Do you have a balanced spread across Enactive, Coactive and Proactive dimensions of a community of inquiry? If not do you have good reasons for giving more emphasis to certain aspects of collaborative thinking than others? How would you summarise your strengths in collaborative thinking? How would you summarise any areas for personal development? If you are engaged in academic or professional work how do you balance Collaborative thinking with the dominance of critical thinking in the Academy and/or the Profession? 1. Identify which elements of critical thinking are required by the assignment and plan how you will ensure you meet the criteria in your writing 2. Identify whether elements of creative thinking are also required by the assignment and plan how you will ensure you meet the criteria in your writing 3. Are there any aspects of caring thinking that would enhance your assignment? 4. Are there any aspects of collaborative thinking that might enhance your assignment through discussion with others? Apply Your Knowledge of the 4Cs for Academic Purposes Thinking 2 Personalise Theory 30 Minutes Task: Utilise your knowledge of Thinking to enhance your academic writing. How you can be more critical and creative to meet the criteria of higher education assignments. In the light of your thinking about the 4Cs how would you argue for or against the P4T hypothesis that: • Collaborative thinking is best conceived as the goal of thinking? • Caring thinking is best conceived as the ground of thinking? • Critical thinking is best conceived as the direction of thinking? • Creative thinking is best conceived as the instrument of thinking? Articulate Your Own Approach to the 4Cs for Pedagogical Purposes Thinking 2 Personalise Theory Open ended Task: Explore the extent to which you agree with the P4T hypothesis Click to return to p4t.org.uk Teacher Resources for Developing Practice Thinking 3 Develop Practice 60 Minutes – Open ended Task: Utilise the teacher resources provided by SAPERE and P4C to develop practice. Click on the links below. I teach Caring thinking by …. (summarise how you teach children/students to develop appreciative, normative, affective and empathic aspects of caring thinking) 2. I teach Critical thinking by …. (summarise how you teach children/students to develop self-correction, sensitivity to context, reliance on criteria and judgement in critical thinking) 3. I teach Creative thinking by …. (summarise how you teach children/students to develop imaginative, holistic, inventive and generative aspects of creative thinking) 4. I teach Collaborative thinking by …. (summarise how you develop your class as a community of inquiry in which everyone learns the enactive, coactive and proactive aspects of collaborative thinking) Teaching Thinking in Practice Thinking 3 Develop Practice 40 Minutes Task: Write a summary of your approach to teaching thinking oriented to the needs of the learners you teach 1. How could you integrate Thinking into the other practices of Pedagogical Development in P4T? Teaching Thinking in Practice Thinking 3 Develop Practice Open ended Task: How could you integrate the teaching of Thinking into your pedagocical development as a whole? a) How do the 4Cs of Thinking enhance Imaginative Teaching? b) How do the 4Cs of Thinking enhance Positive Learning? c) How do the 4Cs of Thinking enhance your approach to Curriculum? 1. How do Thinking and the practices of Personal Development mutually enhance one another? Your approach to Mindfulness. Personality. Spirituality. Way of Life? 2. How do Thinking and the practices of Professional Development mutually enhance one another? Your Teamworking. Professional Culture. Leadership Styles. Transformative School/University? 3. How do Thinking and the practices of Planetary development mutually enhance one another? Your Worldview. Peace work. Political engagement. Civilisational ideals? Teaching Thinking for a Better World Thinking 4 Teach for a Better World Open ended Task: Explore how your approach to Thinking connects with other dimensions of educational philosophy to create a better world in practice. Please include these references in any academic writing Saunders, T. (2020) P4T Thinking Metapractice [Online]. Available at https://www.p4t.org.uk/metapractice/thinking/ [Accessed …] Lipman, M. (2003) Thinking in Education. 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press References. Thank you for joining us in exploring your metathinking preferences and priorities in these slides If you haven’t already visited the P4T (Philosophy for Teachers) website then please click the logo below where you will find further support @ p4t.org.uk in your quest to know yourself, personalise theory, develop practice and teach for a better world! P4T Site

© 2020 Tim Saunders PhD

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